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    Cuba plans massive shift to "non-state" sector

    Cuba plans massive shift to "non-state" sector
    Marc Frank Reuters

    2:59 p.m. CDT, April 23, 2012

    HAVANA (Reuters) - Cuba will move nearly 50 percent of the state's
    economic activity to the "non-state" sector, a senior Communist party
    official said at the weekend, the latest signal the island is headed
    toward a mixed economy.

    Cuban President Raul Castro has hammered away at the need for the state
    to become more efficient and get out of secondary economic activity such
    as farming and retail services since taking over for his ailing older
    brother, Fidel, in 2008.

    China and Vietnam adopted similar measures in the last few decades of
    the 20th century as they began to shift to what is known as market
    socialism.

    "Today, almost 95 percent of gross domestic product is produced by the
    state. Within four or five years between 40 percent and 45 percent will
    result from different forms of non-state production," a long-time
    Communist party political bureau member, Esteban Lazo Hernandez, said in
    a speech to the Havana city government.

    Lazo, who is considered by many to be the Communist party's top
    ideologue, said the increased private business and the tax revenue the
    move would generate meant local government needed to improve its
    efficiency in order to cope with the shift, according to clips of his
    speech broadcast by state-run television on Sunday.

    The Cuban Communist party approved a comprehensive plan to revamp its
    Soviet-style command economy in April of last year.

    The 311-point document calls on authorities to support and encourage,
    "mixed-capital companies, cooperatives, farmers with the right to use
    idle land, landlords of rental properties, self-employed workers and
    other forms that contribute to raise the efficiency of social labor."

    The plans envision the reduction of the state workforce by at least 20
    percent, or a million workers, the elimination of subsidies in favor of
    more narrowly targeted welfare programs and granting state-run companies
    more autonomy.

    "The question will be to see how this 'non-state' production will be
    split between real private property and cooperatives, and how
    independent from the state the cooperatives really are," a Western
    diplomat said.

    Since Castro took office the number of self-employed, often a euphemism
    for small businesses, has doubled to more than 300,000, and some 200,000
    people have taken advantage of a land grant program to encourage small
    farming.

    Small state retail services - from barber shops and beauty parlors to
    taxis and tiny cafeterias - have already been leased to employees. But
    local economists said a major shift to the "non-state" sector, like the
    one outlined by Lazo over the weekend, meant larger chunks of the
    state's economic activity would be peeled off.

    "Such a shift means not just tiny mom-and-pop operations and small
    businesses such as restaurants and hostels, but mid-sized companies
    operating as cooperatives and individually owned," said a local
    economist who asked his name not be used.

    Skeptics question how quickly Cuba's centrally planned economy can
    manage such a radical transformation. "I think a shift of this magnitude
    in such a short time period would be highly unlikely for Cuba," said
    William Messina, agricultural economist with the Food and Resource
    Economics Department at the University of Florida.

    "Even though Raul is trying to implement a number of changes that could
    move the country in this direction, the bureaucratic resistance that
    there appears to be (at least within agriculture) will certainly slow
    the process," he added.

    (Editing by David Adams and Leslie Adler)

    http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/sns-rt-us-cuba-economybre83m19y-20120423,0,6669681.story